How Films Win Friends and Influence People

And the modes of representation that affect the filming process.

6 modes of representation: poetic, reflexive, observational, participatory, expository and performative
Image via Author (Nichols, 2001)

Take a look at observational films, as an example

Source: One Hundred Years of Cinema (1935: Triumph of the Will — The Power of Propaganda)

Expository mode

Performative mode

Reflexive mode

Participatory mode

Is there one truth? Is truth relative? Is what we see on film what actually happened, without anyone’s bias or intervention?

While participatory film allows one to be as close to the subjects as possible, the filmmaker’s presence makes the film a representation of reality, rather a reproduction of it.

But are all films a “lie”, then?

The real film truth

A Generation Z kid studying sociology and searching for the Fortress of Solitude.